Author Biographies. References Adler, P. Managing flexible automation. California management review, 30 3 , Barnett, J.
Adapting to climate change in Pacific Island countries: the problem of uncertainty. World Development, 29 6 , — Bentley, I. Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers. London: Architectural Press. Responsive environment: A Manual for Designers. CABE London: CABE. Carmona, M. Boston, MA: Architectural Press. Chau, L.
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Designing Better City Centres: Toward improving sustainability and livability. Brisbane, QUT, unpublished M. D, Public Spaces, Urban. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, — Davic, R.
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On the ecological roles of salamanders. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematic, 35, — Davies, L.
Urban Design Compendium 1. Evans, R. Urban Design Compendium 2.
Delivering Quality Places. GEHL-Architects Places for People. City of Melbourne. Public Spaces, Public Life, Sydney City of Sydney. Jacobs, A. Great Streets. Cambridge, Mass. Madanipour, A. However, too much public space only lead to false wealth Krier, In a study by William , which he study a range of open spaces in New York, shows many open spaces with little usage apparently. In addition, disintegration of living public spaces and the gradual transformation of the street areas that is of no interest to anyone, only lead to negative outcome such as vandalism and crime in the streets Gehl, Krier, , questioned about the effect of market economy in relation to the production of a true public realm.
He argued that, although commerce is vital as being part of public space, true public space should not just a by product of commerce in which the private developers main interest are merely pure commercial aspect of public spaces. He then concluded that the true public spaces should be a matter of general interest, communal life and citizenship development Krier, However, Carr et al , insisted that the usage of public spaces are dynamic in relation with the public life, which they suggested that new activities require new type of spaces Carr et al, Nevertheless, when there are lesser people using public spaces, the need to maintain and provide new public spaces become less important which in time, will create a situation where there is a decline of public spaces Carmona, These activities take place only when exterior conditions are favourable, when weather and place invite them such as taking a walk, standing around, sitting or sunbathing Gehl, People will not be able to perform optional activities and people will hurry home if the outdoor areas are of poor quality Gehl, Hence, leading no option or flexibility and only allowed people to carry out necessary activities which eventually create limitation of activities to take place Gehl, Gehl also added, with quality outdoor areas, they can improve and increase optional activities which eventually lead to rise in social activities Gehl Porta, emphasise on the idea of social contact which happen spontaneously from different degree of.
Sharing public space with other people could create this social contact by exchanging information on the outside world as well as being a source of new and diverse inspiration. He also pointed out that in order to achieve this social contacts, various kind activities need to be happen in the same space Porta, When a city provide recreation, natural beauty, and signature open spaces for its people, it turned the city into great city where it contributed to the building of civic pride, increasing tourism and economic investment, and contributing to health and quality of life Rogers, In addition, Roger also added that public spaces also plays important role as symbols of civic pride and sense of space which give character to the community.
Furthermore, citizens can increase their confidence or unity by providing public spaces for recreation and integrating green infrastructure which can resulted in quantifiable environmental benefits Braza, Amin agreed that public space will always be an important site of civic becoming where it needs to be placed in context when thinking about the possibilities for urban well-being and collective recognition Amin, Krier identified an ideal masterplan principle that is divided into five parts which included the need of code for public spaces.
The public code consists of defining the materials, configurations, techniques and designs for paving, street furniture, signage, lighting and planting for the public space Krier, Public space plays important role for social interaction and the daily experience of urban everyday life where the availability of public space also make the possibility of large number of people to form social interaction Madanipour, Such of it can be seen from the existence of public parks which are important for liveable and enjoyable higher density communities Calthorpe, Gehl, stated that by seeing, hearing and meeting other people is more beneficial and more in demand than the attractions of the public spaces of cities and residential area which he then agreed that the life in buildings and between buildings is much essential and more relevant than the spaces and the buildings themselves.
Although, more than architecture is needed in order for the social interactions to develop, it is however essential that the design of public spaces will encourage it taking into account the variety of interest and needs of different kind of residents or users within the areas Gehl, Factor affecting usage of public space Talen , considered dispersed spaces are more preferable than concentrated spaces. This can be done by planning a compact city which can promotes high accessibility which eventually lead to reduction of walking distances to public spaces Helling, This lead to the idea of accessibility to public spaces are very much rely on travel time and proximity Erkip, Result from the study shows that variable such as proximity, dispersed location, travel time and characteristics of the transport environment will directly affect the the accessibility to the public spaces.
Erkip , identified factors affecting the use and satisfaction of the users of public spaces comprise of accessibility, congestion levels, comfort level and variation of activities. For example, when a place was crowded, people tend to sit where they could rather than where they most wanted. Then, some of the parts of the place will be emptied with some other continued to be used. This lead to the understanding of how people actually use public spaces. Through observation, Whyte then stated a few features that make a public space more sociable which can be understand as following:.
Sun penetration, the aesthetics value of the space and dimensions shape and size of the space are much less important factors compared to how people actually used it Whyte, , In order to cope with time change, Carr et al.
THESIS: Urban Design and Development of a Public Space
They eventually identified five primary needs for people to feel satisfy in public space: Comfort: Length of time people stay in a public space is showing that the space is functioning well and act as an indicator of its comfort. Carr et al. Relaxation: Natural elements such as trees, greenery, water features and separation from vehicular help to create a much more relaxed ambience in urban settings Carr et al.
Passive Engagement: Passive engagement such as people-watching is what make people feel satisfy in public space as people is interested in the life and activity of other people Whyte , Other than that, passive engagement can be achieved by providing fountains, views, public art, performances and so forth Carr et al.
Active Engagement: Some people desire direct approach such as meeting people and social activity with friends, family or strangers apart from passive engagement Carr et al. Discovery: Desire for new experience or to find things or even activities that break from the routines make what people attracted to public spaces. Such of the experience include concerts, art exhibitions, street theatre, festivals, parades, markets or society event.
Planning recommendation for public space It does not matter whether the planning is for big cities or smaller urban areas, a good quality with familiar character and proportion in term of dimensions should be thought of for the planning of public spaces Krier, Creating sense of space is basically done by proper design and placement of public space in city Duany and Platter-Zyberck, Planning and development should always considered the effective uses of public spaces where it should be consistent with the character and density of the local area Goodmann, Calthorpe, suggested that regardless the uses, neighbourhood parks should be designed for both active and passive uses in which character of the place should be well reflected with the anticipated of uses.
According to Krier , Public spaces should be organised into regular or irregular patterns which con-. In term of shape, usually regular geometric and parallel public spaces represent highly formal public space which require high degree of architectural order whereas modest architecture usually have non-parallel configurations that is much more freer, less imposing composition as stated by Krier However, in the planning for architecture and urbanism a good urban spaces can be created only if plan, skyline and organisation form an evident bond in which uses all variations of geometric and topographic devices Krier, In term of dimensions, Gehl noted that there is an important relationship between architectural dimensions and the perception of intensity, closeness and warmth.
Cities with modest dimensions, narrow streets and small spaces are usually perceived as intimate, warm, and personal because of the close range experience when moving about whereas cities with large spaces, wide streets and tall buildings usually are perceived as cold and impersonal Gehl, As suggested by Porta , the sizes urban public spaces should be considered to be well proportion with the surroundings for example, both of the horizontal distance and vertical distance relationship of the buildings must be allowed for one to see to be seen clearly.
He also emphasise that only during standing, sitting, lying down, or walking, people will experience having meaningful social activities, intense experiences, conversations, and caresses will take place compared to having only a little quick look from car or from a train window.
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This shows the idea of having difference dimensions between automobile city and the pedestrian city where automobile city will be bigger and bold with large buildings and poor detailing in order to be seen and perceived by the quick movement. This eventually lead to the need of slow traffic in order to make a city more lively which can be seen in pedestrian cities like Dubrovnik and Venice. He also added that number of people to be appeared in the city can be greatly improved if the speed movement is reduced from 60 to 6 kilometres per hour 35 to 3.
According to Gehl, , basically, lengthy stays means lively cities.
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Therefore, by ensuring that more people used the public spaces and by the ability to encourage longer individual stays can lead to high level of activity in a certain area. This is due to the reason that in order for the life between buildings to happen, it all depend on the condition that allowed for a longer duration to stays outdoors. Thus, improving conditions for outdoor stays can definitely tempted people to remain in the public spaces. To summarise in term of senses, Gehl suggested five possibilities and limitations that can help archi-. For isolation purposes, Gehl suggested with the principles of using walls, long distances, high speeds, multiple levels and orientation away from others.
On the other hand, for contact purposes, the principles would be the usage of no wall, short distances, low speeds, one level and orientation should facing toward others. By combining, or using these five principles individually, architects and planners can decide how to establish the basic rudiment for isolation and contact respectively Gehl, There should also be a clear continuos sequence of public spaces which started with open public spaces to the semi-public, to semi private and lastly to the private inner space, which can be done by using transitional architectural space such as by using levels of attractiveness of the building facades.
Porta, On the other hand, certain proportion of public spaces need to be achieved in order for the city to be efficient. Too much public spaces would only lead to false luxury whereas too little public spaces equal to false economy. In addition, as suggested by Krier, the good proportion of public spaces should occupy not more than 35 percent or less than 25 percent the total area of a quarter. Free access is comprises of several examples such as squares, streets or other rights of way in residential or commercial uses.
"Transformation of Urban Public Space" by Ruthanne Harrison
It also involves the interfaces with private spaces that accessible to public internally and externally. Other than being the democracy place in the Greek polis, the agoras are functioned as an open marketplace for the people.
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Mumford described the agora as a rectangular square and act like the dynamic center for the city. The agora in the ancient Greek polis known as the most tenacious and oldest place of assembly and a festival place where people conduct their conversations and meeting with others Xing et al, Xing et al.