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Essay on Effects of Global Warming in English
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What is Global Warming and How Does It Affect the World?
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1. Effects of Global Warming on the Environment Essay
Ongoing effects include rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and ice sheets, and warming of the ocean surface, leading to increased temperature stratification. Other possible effects include large-scale changes in ocean circulation. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may decline, with adverse consequences for ocean life.
Two main factors contribute to sea level rise. The rate of sea level rise since the industrial revolution in the C19th has been larger than the rate during the previous two thousand years high confidence. Even if emission of greenhouse gases stopped overnight, sea level rise will continue for centuries to come. In , a study by Professor James Hansen of Columbia University and 16 other climate scientists said a sea level rise of three metres could be a reality by the end of the century.
From to , the global ocean temperature has risen by 0. There is variability both year-to-year and over longer time scales, with global ocean heat content observations showing high rates of warming for —, but some cooling from to Regional effects of global warming vary in nature. Some are the result of a generalised global change, such as rising temperature, resulting in local effects, such as melting ice. In other cases, a change may be related to a change in a particular ocean current or weather system. In such cases, the regional effect may be disproportionate and will not necessarily follow the global trend.
There are three major ways in which global warming will make changes to regional climate: melting or forming ice, changing the hydrological cycle of evaporation and precipitation and changing currents in the oceans and air flows in the atmosphere. The coast can also be considered a region, and will suffer severe impacts from sea level rise. The Arctic , Africa , small islands and Asian megadeltas are regions that are likely to be especially affected by climate change.
Projections of future climate changes at the regional scale do not hold as high a level of scientific confidence as projections made at the global scale. The impacts of climate change can be thought of in terms of sensitivity and vulnerability. The sensitivity of human society to climate change varies. Sectors sensitive to climate change include water resources, coastal zones, human settlements, and human health.
Industries sensitive to climate change include agriculture , fisheries , forestry , energy , construction , insurance , financial services , tourism , and recreation. Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to: the effects of elevated CO 2 in the atmosphere, higher temperatures, altered precipitation and transpiration regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, and modified weed , pest , and pathogen pressure.
As of , the effects of regional climate change on agriculture have been small. With low to medium confidence, Schneider et al. With medium confidence, global production potential was projected to: . Most of the studies on global agriculture assessed by Schneider et al. Studies had also not considered the development of specific practices or technologies to aid adaptation to climate change.www.janoubchamal.net/wp-content/map4.php
Global Warming Essay Tips: How-to Guide for
The graphs opposite show the projected effects of climate change on selected crop yields. The projections above can be expressed relative to pre-industrial temperatures. Add 0. Easterling et al. It was noted that these projections were highly uncertain and had limitations. However, the assessed studies suggested a number of fairly robust findings.
The first was that climate change would likely increase the number of people at risk of hunger compared with reference scenarios with no climate change. Climate change impacts depended strongly on projected future social and economic development. Additionally, the magnitude of climate change impacts was projected to be smaller compared to the impact of social and economic development. In , the global estimate for the number of people undernourished was million. By contrast, the SRES A2 scenario showed only a small decrease in the risk of hunger from levels.
The smaller reduction under A2 was attributed to the higher projected future population level in this scenario. Some evidence suggests that droughts have been occurring more frequently because of global warming and they are expected to become more frequent and intense in Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, most of the Americas, Australia, and Southeast Asia.
Human beings are exposed to climate change through changing weather patterns temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise and more frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in water, air and food quality and changes in ecosystems, agriculture, industry and settlements and the economy Confalonieri et al. Not all of the effects of climate change were included in their estimates, for example, the effects of more frequent and extreme storms were excluded. Total attributable mortality was about 0.
With high confidence, authors of the IPCC AR4 Synthesis report  : 48 projected that climate change would bring some benefits in temperate areas, such as fewer deaths from cold exposure, and some mixed effects such as changes in range and transmission potential of malaria in Africa. Benefits were projected to be outweighed by negative health effects of rising temperatures, especially in developing countries. With very high confidence, Confalonieri et al.
Economic growth on its own, however, was not judged to be sufficient to insulate the world's population from disease and injury due to climate change. Future vulnerability to climate change will depend not only on the extent of social and economic change, but also on how the benefits and costs of change are distributed in society.
A number of climate-related trends have been observed that affect water resources. These include changes in precipitation, the crysosphere and surface waters e. Excessive precipitation patterns lead to excessive sediment deposition, nutrient pollution, and concentration of minerals in aquifers.
The rising global temperature will cause sea level rise and will extend areas of salinization of groundwater and estuaries , resulting in a decrease in freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas. The exposure of rising sea level will push the salt gradient into freshwater deposits and will eventually pollute freshwater sources. In an assessment of the scientific literature , Kundzewicz et al. Freshwater has become an aiding factor for industrialization in this modern era. It has many uses other than drinking including: domestic use, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, public supply, and thermoelectric.
These are only some of the general uses of freshwater that further complicate freshwater quality. These components take a large quantity of freshwater to implement into technology. The amount of freshwater being allocated towards technology results for about half of the natural freshwater resource that is actually available to us. With all of these different factors using the freshwater resource that accounts for less than one percent it should be of concern. Current water energy regulations are being made to switch to less energy intensive processes.
In turn, lowering water use has a direct link with energy use, significantly lowering amount of emissions. Water is needed to produce energy while energy is needed to "produce" water.