Railways have specialized themselves in carrying over long distances heavy and bulky goods including containers. Most of trains are electric and diesel locomotives. Fast moving trains and public amenities at railway station is introduced.
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Railway made a significant problem in the area of track replacement. Rajdhani and Shatabdi trains are introduced. At present, the railways comprise three gauges-broad 1.
Efforts are being made to convert meter gouge track to broad gauge track. At present Measures to reduce the burden of the Railways.
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Railway Zones. Far administrative convenience the Railways have been divided into zones. The zones and headquarters are as under:. Characteristics of the Distribution of Railway Network:. The rail network is highly linked to the level of agricultural development. It is connected with all parts through fast trains. The rugged terrain, backward economy and sparse population are responsible for sparse rail network. No railway is found in Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur and Nagaland.
A long trunk route runs all along the East coast but such a rail track is missing along the Western Ghats due to outcrops of ghats being very close to the coast. Pipe Line Transport. In the past pipelines were used to carry water to cities and industries, these are also used for transportation of crude of natural gas and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
Pipelines have made it possible to set-up big thermal power-plants in a shortest possible time and near to market. Major categories of Pipelines. There are four major networks of pipeline transportation in our country:. Another major pipeline originates from salaya in Gujrat and carries crude oil to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Delhi Mathura and Panipat.
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Its branches connect koyali near Vadodra, Chakshu and numerous other places. It is kilometer long. Fourth major pipeline also connects Mumbai high with Mumbai and Mumbai with Pune.
Some more pipelines are proposed pipelines they will be laid completed and made operational in the near future :. India has large number of perennial rivers and a very long coast line of km. Water transport is of two types Inland Water Transport. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
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These are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. India has inland navigable waterways of 14, km in length. Out of these, only km are navigable by mechanized boats. National Waterways. Government of India has declared the following inland waterways as national waterways. The Ganga River between Allahabad and Haldia covering a distance of km. The Brahmputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri km. The west coast canal between kollam and kottapuram covering a distance of km.
The Champakara canal covering a distance of 14 km. The Vdyogmandal canal covering a distance of 22 km. Major Navigable River and Canals. The Brahmaputra and the Ganga are important navigable rivers. The lower reaches of the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Mahanadi, the Narmada and the Tapi and their canals are also navigable. Ocean Water Transport. Water transport along the coast is also very important in India. It is a cheap means of transport.
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The long coastline can be properly utilized for the purpose of transport of goods along the west and east coasts of the country from one part to another. Major Sea Ports. About km long coast line of India is served by 12 major and medium and minor seaports. The Incas constructed over 16, km 10, mi of roads in South America in the 15th century and were able to relay a message km mi in one day. Today, in many countries of the world, human-powered transportation remains the main form of transportation. In African cities, two-thirds of daily trips are made by walking.
Even in automobile-dominated North American and European cities, walking is an important mode of transportation. Railroads are paths of parallel metal rails that allow a wheeled vehicle to move more easily by reducing friction. Iron rails were first used in the early s to guide horse-drawn wagons. After the invention of the steam locomotive in , steam engines replaced horses as the primary means of power.
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Modern locomotives commonly use electric motors or diesel engines and pull long trains of passenger or freight cars. Air travel has revolutionized global transportation by dramatically reducing the time needed to travel great distances. Journeys across nations or oceans that might have taken weeks or months can now be made in a matter of hours. With large numbers of people traveling in airplanes, air transportation has become a major part of the world's transportation system Airplanes are heavier-than-air craft that use wings to produce lift in order to fly.
Airplanes transport people from place to place and also ferry shipments of mail, perishable goods, and other important cargo The airplane has also revolutionized warfare. Many aeronautical advances in technology, such as the jet engine, were achieved by military engineers and designers. Advances in technology produced faster, larger, and more durable airplanes.
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The introduction of the turbojet engine in helped inaugurate the jet age in world travel in the years after World War II The first commercial jet flight in the United States, made by a Boeing , occurred in To handle ever-increasing passenger demand, jet aircraft were made bigger and faster. The Boeing jumbo jet, which can carry over passengers, entered service in The supersonic British-French Concorde began passenger service in Some of the greatest achievements in transportation relate to methods of crossing water. Two-thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water, so the progress of civilization is naturally tied to the ability to move over water.
Water transportation has progressed from early rafts and canoes to more complex sailing ships to today's large passenger and freight ships. Freight vessels are special oceangoing ships that are designed exclusively for carrying large amounts of cargo.
Different vessels are designed for carrying different kinds of cargo, such as liquids, bulk cargo for example, grain or ore , or containers of preloaded materials. Of course, there are hundreds of other modes of transportation, including roller skates, hang-gliders, hydrofoils, the space shuttle, and the submarine, just to name a few. If transportation had never progressed beyond walking and domestic animals, civilization today would be totally and completely different.
We would not be as nearly as advanced, nor would we have the millions of miles of roads and highways that we do. Several major airports, including Denver International and JFK International , provide many types of ground transportation, often by working with livery companies and similar businesses. Smaller airports might only have a few private rental companies and a bus service. Larger airports tend to offer several different transportation options. As with air transport, sea transport typically requires use of ground transport at either end of travel for people and goods to reach their final destinations.
Significant infrastructure is used at ports to transfer people and goods between sea and land systems. Infrastructure is the fixed installations that allow a vehicle to operate.